Pantry emerged as the dominant term used to describe a room in a house for storing food.
Larder and cupboard were almost equally as popular. The word you use likely reflects where you grew up. Pantry is most commonly used in the northern regions of England, while larder is mainly used by people who grew up in the south. Those hailing from East Anglia, with their dominant use of pantry, seem to be the exception to the rule.